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Al Adl wa Al Ihsan (Justice and Spirituality) - Its Path and Future after the Passing of its Founding Leader

Omar Amasku
22 Feb 2017
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Introduction
Abstract

Al Adl wa Al Ihsan movement (henceforth Adl movement or the movement) is one of the largest political and daw’a movements in Morocco, founded by Sheikh Abussalam Yassin[i] in the 1980’s. It is a civil society movement that preaches Islam and call on people to follow the true path of Allah. It also endeavors to be of those “who” are chosen to renovate the religion for the Muslim Ummah, as mentioned in a well-known Hadith narrated by Abu Huraira in which prophet Mohammad PBUH said: “Allah will raise for this community at the end of every hundred years the one who will renovate its religion for it”[ii]. The movement’s slogan is “Justice and Spirituality”, which is derived from the Holy Quran, and it summarizes its agenda and objectives. The movement always aspires towards benevolence and righteousness (Ihsan) , and seeks social and political Justice (Adl) as an essential characteristic of the law of Allah and His Sharia. Renovating faith among the people, and gradually going from the level of Islam and accepting the faith to the level of righteousness and true faith (Iman) to eventually reach the level of Ihsan, and that is the essence of the call of the Adl movement and the core of all its activities. Politics has been always pivotal to the Adl movement, since it requires constant efforts to renovate religion among the people and guide their lives according to the Sharia of Allah and His Messenger, Mohammad PBUH. Therefore, the Adl movement is equally ceoncerned with public affairs and also attends to the private needs of individuals, since the movement believes that to realize general welfare for the people it is necessary to make sure that the individual is on the path of righteousness and close to Allah, free from sins and liberated from the stress and anxieties of modern life. Adl and Ihsan are the reflected by the movement in all walks of life, in politics, moral formation, preaching, and the two concepts are considered the core of religion and life, Da’wa and state affairs, politics and the Hereafter. Since its foundation, the Adl movement has denounced the acts of the oppressors through peaceful means, based on three categorical No’s: No to Violence: because it stirs sedition among Muslims, while at the same time siding with clearly with just and rightful causes and facing injustice and corruption. No to Secrecy: because secrecy leads to close-mindedness and obscures reality No to Foreign Intervention: because it is contrary to independence in opinion and actions, and it undermines true understanding of reality. The movement is nevertheless open to interaction and cooperation with any other Islamic movement. The Adl movement is known for having a comprehensive project, which combines da’wa, moral formation, and intellectual aspects, expounded by its late founder, Sheikh Abdussalan Yasin in his books in a theory known as “al-Minhaj al-Nabawi” which explains the approach of Prophet Mohammad in moral formation, organization, and Jihad. The Educational Project of the Movement This project has was first introduced in a book titled “Islam between Da’wa and the State” (1972) and “Islam Tomorrow” (1973) which laid the basis for the Minhaj al-Nabawi approach (henceforth the Prophet Approach). This was followed then by “The Prophetic Method” (1982) which expounded the fundamentals of this school of thought, through presenting an integrated approach to moral and organizational formation in Islamic work, and thus this books is considered the ideological framework for the Adl movement. There are also other books which gave further details and explanations to this approach in from different aspects.[iii] The adl movement succeeded in applying this project within the theoretical framework developed by its founder in its activities of moral formation, da’wa, organizational work, and opposition. The Movement before the Passing of its Founder The Adl movement has continued during the year 2012 its peaceful yet open opposition to the regime in Morocco. This opposition stems from the belief of its followers in the universal norms and the inevitability of the change and victory promised by Allah to the true believers and those who struggle in his cause. This year was a year of political and educational formation, although a crackdown was underway against the movement and all the free voices in the country. The years 2012 was not an exception in the history of modern Morocco. There was a state of impasse and absurdity in running the country, and public affairs were on the verge of collapse, and that was evident in the popular protests and the increasing demands by the people to put an end to corruption, oppression, monopoly, and autocracy. The protests also demanded to build a new Morocco based on the principles of freedom, dignity, and justice. This year also witnessed according to observers and local and international reports a state of collapse in all the governmental policies, accompanied by a rise in popular awareness which revealed the weakness of the sham non-representative institutions. This is the strategy adopted by the Unification and Reform Movement (URM) through its political arm, the Justice and Development Party (PJD) which is currently the ruling party in Morocco. This comes against the backdrop of a severe social crisis and deteriorating human rights conditions and widespread corruption in most sectors. The events took place this year were further evidence in support of the analyses of the Adl movement, and what it portended started to happen. The popular unrest is building up, and the open opposition to the policies of the governing elite in the country. This is a significant period in the modern history of Morocco, and it is portentous of a new period and dramatic changes. The Movement and Crackdown The Adl movement has not been exempt from ordeals and trials, since it was in the vanguard of civil society in Morocco, and it proved agile and steadfast through its wise propositions and initiatives, and the preparedness of its institutions and the discipline of its members and their sacrifices. The movement has been resilient against the crackdowns and the distortion and blemishing schemes against it. Such attempts were even counterproductive, since they reinforced the resilience of the movement, and increased its popularity among the people. The movement remained utterly determined to adhere to its peaceful approach to communicate with others regardless of disagreements, in order to achieve the welfare of Morocco and Moroccans and the overall all interest of the Muslim ummah. On the other hand, this year was also proved that distinction of the movement and the open-mindedness of its leadership and their willingness to engage in joint efforts and projects, showing self-denial and impartiality, embracing the common interest of the people and rejecting intolerance and bigotry to sub-identities, which would consume time and efforts in marginal disagreements. The year 2012 also proved to the governing elite in the country (Makhzan)[iv] the movement’s resilience against trials, prosecution, and crackdowns against its members and their businesses and houses. The movement success in disseminating its message is a blessing of God, Who made it possible for the movement to spread and increase its base of supporters. The news of the movement and its impact has now spread outside Morocco, and the ideas and beliefs promoted by the movement are now known for a lot people all around the world. The movement in this year was always present in the Moroccan society, despite the unjust restrictions imposed by the regime on all its activities. The movement was preoccupied in applying its approach in the community. It targeted the moral formation of the individuals and raising their awareness, in order to move from the state of heedlessness and the life of sins to the state of righteousness and unrighteousness, and from the state of apathy and indifference to the state of positivity and engagement to build a new Morocco. The movement remained during 2012 close to the public and was aware of their demands. It increased its balanced presence and activity in most of the regions around the country and outreached the different sectors of the society. The members of the movement played a major role in providing help for the people in different aspects, such as fighting illiteracy, raising awareness, social rehabilitation of Moroccans, providing a framework in politics and da’wa, and participating in social events and supporting the public demands. The movement remained a school teaching the moderate principles of Islam, and an institution, which prepares qualified preachers and scholars who engage in the community and spread the message of Islam which rejects radicalism. The movement remained steadfast and straightforward, despite continuous distortions and campaigns targeting it. it was able, by the help of God, to expose the maneuvers and low cunnings of the governing elite and its unwillingness to respond to the demands of the people. The movement was also active on the legal front, where it exposed the smear campaigns led against it by the governing elite[v], and it supported those affected by the campaign and defended them. It also participated in all the national legal initiatives and a number of international events to support just causes and to fight Zionism, racism, and savage globalization. In order to strengthen its international participation and presence, the movement was keen on attending international conferences and forums. The movement took part in the international convoys to lift the brutal siege on Gaza Strip and attended the meeting of the General Assembly of the International Union of Muslim Scholars in Istanbul. It also participated in the fourth international forum for human rights in France, among many other international conferences and forums which were attended by the movement despite constants constraints and crackdowns. Despite its limited capabilities, the movement had an active media function. The regime continuously tried to block the websites of the movement[vi], which are the only remaining media outlets of the movement after the regime banned most of its newspapers and magazines.[vii] The media apparatus of the movement[viii] covered a number of activities and events in the country, and produced several audio, video and print materials. It also had a place in the new media outlets in order to counter the smear and distortion campaigns against the movement and its figures. The movement enjoys good press coverage thanks to its constant presence in dialogues and press conferences. The Movement and Civil Society In regards to student movement which is considered an important asset to the work of the Adl movement in the society. The university students, represented by “The Union of Al Adl wa Al Ihsan Students”, played a major role inside the Moroccan universities, assuming the responsibility of renovating the structures of the national student union in Morocco[ix]. They managed to regain the trust of the university students, which reflects the great efforts exerted by the students to defend their rights and facing the schemes that aims at weakening the role of the universities and neutralizing them. The Adl movement also succeeded in this year to gain increasing momentum inside the Moroccan society and the professional syndicates. It won the trust of voter in several syndicates and professional societies, especially in the engineers and lawyers syndicates. Despite these successes, the movement always tried to commit to the concept of participation and cooperation with other actors in the society. In the midst of the strong and effective presence of the movement within the Moroccan society, it did not overlook its relationship to the rest of the Arab and Muslim world. The movement interacted with all the significant events in the region, through hundreds of demonstrations, marches, speeches, press releases, visits, and initiatives, in order to raise awareness regarding these issues. The movement has always supported the people of Palestine, Syria, Iraq, Burma, Tunisian, Egypt, and other. It organized a march on March 25, 2012 in Rabat in solidarity with the people of Palestine. Adl movement has a future vision and therefore it does not function based on mere timely reactions. It goes about its mission quietly and confidently, with a firm belief that God shall support the believers. The Studies and Research Center[x] which includes specialized units concerned with public affairs, has developed a political project and platform for the movement, and studies the developments in the country. The center depends on analysis, observation, and studying the different experiences related to public affairs. The Adl movement, since 2012, and in conformity with the commandments of God to denounce oppression, counter corruption, and clarifying the prophetic approach in peaceful resistance against injustice and oppression. The movement aims at fortifying its effective presence in the society, whether through its initiatives or through working inside the society and its civil institutions and syndicates. In regards to moral formation, the movement, like every year, executed its program through various activities, such as vigils and spiritual sessions, although the Moroccan authorities prevented several vigils and spiritual sessions inside the mosques using meaningless pretexts. The Relationship with the Regime and the Government The movement adopts a peaceful approach that rejects all forms of violence, and its constant calls for national dialogue with all political and societal actors. Nevertheless, the relationship between the movement and authority, represented by the regime and the government of the Justice and Development Party (PJD) that advocates Islamism, has been characterized by tensions and ambivalence during this year. The Adl movement insists that the official slogans used by the regime in Morocco mislead people and make them believe that the regime is moving towards democratization and strengthening the rule of law. While in fact the regime is extremely corrupt and increasingly oppressive, and that is evident by observing the public policies in the country, which proves that it democratization and freedoms in this country is a mere lie perpetuated by the regime. This deception is exposed by the increasing oppression in the country, when the regime bluntly rejects sharing authority with the new government led by PJD, although this sharing is provided for in the new constitution, which said to mark the beginning of a new democratic transition in the country. Scrutinizing the inner works of politics in this country, in 2012 and before, could reveal the huge degree of deterioration and corruption in terms of allocating and practicing authority and the absence of accountability. The authorities are clearly vested in one major figure, who is the King and the governing elite around him. The government and the Parliament are only formal necessities that do not enjoy any real and independent authority. Despite the difference in details and political circumstances, the essence and nature of the oppressive regime in Morocco could only produced a political situation characterized by the following: The increasing influence of the King: the King interference in the public affairs has increased to the point that he became the ultimate reference in all the decisions that shape the general framework of public policies. The King even controls the details through a number of tools, such as establishing certain institutions, committees and councils that interfere in the functions of the government and the Parliament. In the social sphere for instance, the King approved a program known as “The National Initiative for Human Development” with a huge budget, and he entrusted the Interior Ministry, which is controlled by the King, with managing this initiative. The foreign policy on the other hand has been always exclusively preserved for the King, and the case of the Western Sahara is probably a clear example of this control, since negotiations have not realized any real developments for Moroccans. On the other hand, the new constitution has granted the King a special status, where he is the head of political authority in the country, and has been given exclusive authorities in the most critical aspects in running the state. All of these authorities vested in him notwithstanding the King also exceeded his authorities and interfered with everything, without being held accountable for his actions, such as when he individually appointed high officials such as ambassadors. The King’s central powers in the political life in Morocco render all actors ineffective, and undermine the sound and democratic political practice. Several issues have been practically seized from the government, through direct interference by the King or through his advisory councils, in addition to the money appropriated to the funds created by the King, such as Hassan II Fund, and the National Initiative, and Mohammad V Foundation for Solidarity. The government in Morocco also realized that certain sectors and issues are out of its control, such as the sectors controlled by ministers appointed by the King and named “Sovereign Ministries” which are directly related to the King and follow his instructions or the instructions of his advisors. Although the constitution clearly stipulates that the administration of the state is the responsibility of the government, the Ministry of Interior is encroaching on the general administration of the country through a number of tools and away from the authority of the government. The King also forms new advisory committees and delegates to them certain tasks that fall within the authority of the government or the Parliament, such as the advisory committee appointed by the King to draft a project regarding regionalism in the country. Such tasks are usually the responsibility of the government , which presents a draft law before the Parliament for deliberation and voting. This also applies to the amending the constitution, where the King appointed an advisory committee to draft the amendments and set a number of objectives and red lines, although this is responsibility of the Parliament and the government according to the constitution. The royal court appointed 30 new ambassadors without respecting the constitutional protocols, and faced by utter silence by the head of government, which naturally reflects the nature of the changes promised by the regime. The public in Morocco will soon find that these long-awaited changes are mere delusions, and the bitter reality will linger on, although some prefer not to believe so. It was also noticed during this period that the religious status of the King was overtly exploited and scholars were marginalized and their public impact was crippled. The Islamic institutions and mosques were used to propagate official propaganda and to promote the policies of the governing elite which persists in infringing on human dignity and abuse of Islamic sentiments. It is particularly strange to insist on such claims to the religious status of the regime, as a means to control and oppression in case other “constitutional” tools were insufficient, although such tools are not consistent with the spirit of modern democratic constitutions which clearly separate between powers and relates authority to accountability and respecting rights and freedoms. An impotent “government”: the work of the government, according to the Adl movement, has been characterized by reinforcing the structural impediments which inhibits the presence of good responsible governance. The government is restricted by certain “rules” which diminish its executive powers for the advantage of another authority which is not elected and above accountability. Theoretically, the government is responsible for certain public policies, but practically it has very limited powers, since it is only authorized to execute the choices of the King most of the time. This was the case in recent years, and it remains so this year. The different political powers in the Parliament are also used to practicing authority in this manner, which further inhibited the government from having sufficient powers in public affairs, and therefore a number of important issues are decided upon away from the executive power. Such issues include the social program, the Western Sahara, foreign policy, security, and “religious affairs”, in addition to other major projects which consumes significant part of the budget and fall within the exclusive remit of the governing elite, where special funds are created without the knowledge of the Parliament and the government. Ineffective “Parliament”: similar to other constitutional bodies, the Parliament in Morocco has not witnessed any developments in its roles or functions. It remained restricted by a futile approach characterized by weakness and routine despite the exceptional circumstances in the country. Additionally, the Parliament (House of Representatives and The House of Councilors) is not exactly representative, because the majority of citizens boycotted the elections, and the votes were rigged and lacked integrity. The Adl movement summarized its position in a statement by the regional Council[xi] of the political department[xii] in its 16th assembly held in 20-21 Shawwal 1433 A.H corresponding to 8-9 September 2012 in Casablanca under the title “And Allah will surely support those who support Him, Indeed Allah is Powerful and Exalted” (Quran 22:40). The council discussed the general political situation in Morocco, and stressed in its final statement the fact that the circumstances in the country are deteriorating, and reiterated the importance of perseverance in the same political approach that rejects oppression in all its forms. The movement also confirmed its willingness to cooperate with Moroccans who seek to realize the interest and welfare of their country. The movement is ready to participate equally and openly on all aspects and activities in order to put an end to oppression and obliterate corruption.[xiii] This call is constantly reiterated by the movement, which calls on the responsible national powers in Morocco in order to meet on a common ground and engage in serious responsible work to save the country. The Movement Struggle to Overcome Obstacles Despite the official slogans which praise the “Moroccan model of democracy” and the increasing freedoms in the country, oppression remains prevalent, and the governing elite are unwilling to ease their grip over the political future of Morocco. The Adle movement was among those who suffered the dire consequences of this reality, and was subject to various crackdowns and harassments. Several centers belonging to the movement is still closed without a legal order[xiv], and scores of civil institutions are outlawed based on mere doubts by the authorities that one of the members is affiliated with the movement. Arbitrary arrests were also rampant among members of the movement, among them was Omar Muhibb, a member in the movement in Fes, in a case that foes back to the 1990’s[xv], and was sentenced to 10 years in prison. These measures are taken by the authorities to cripple the impact of the movement. The governing elite in Morocco also banned various camps organized by the movement or institutions affiliated with it, and children were deprived from their rights to go camping because their parents belong to the Adl movement. The movement worked using its available tools against the constraints imposed on it by the regime in Morocco in order to spread its message, promote its project and communicate directly with the people. This year was also characterized by the first scientific conference about “The Centrality of The Holy Quran in Abdussalam Theory of Prophetic Approach” which was held in Istanbul, 1-2 December 2012[xvi]. It was a remarkably successful conference with the participation of a distinguished group of scholars and researchers, who presented crucially important studies. This conference was a clear sign that the movement has a widespread presence and popularity in several countries around the world[xvii]. The movement also succeeded in creating fruitful links and channels of communication with a lot of movements and parties outside Morocco, in order to share experiences with them, through attending conferences in Algeria, Tunisia, Mauritania, and other countries. This helped the movement to introduced its projects and vision and to resist the constraints imposed on it by the regime in Morocco. The Adl Movement After the Passing of Its Founder The Adl movement was inflicted by the death of its founder and Imam, Sheikh Abdussalam Yasin on Thursday 29 Muharrah 1434 A.H corresponding to 13 December 2012. This sad occasion was a distinctive point in the history of the movement, because the movement lost its founding leader and, ideologue, and spiritual guide. It was a great loss for Morocco as well, because it lost one of its eminent scholars who was known as “the advisor of kings”[xviii]. Skeikh Yassin left a great legacy for the Muslim Ummah, in a journey which is marked by great milestones. This passing of the Imam was a pivotal moment the development of the movement, and some believed that his absence would leave the movement confused and affect its strength and perseverance. Others expected that by the passing of the Imam, the movement will witness dissensions and its members will compete over the new leadership of the movement, while others expected the movement to engage directly in politics and turn into a political party to compete with the PJD. These assumptions put aside, the passing of Sheikh Yassin enabled Moroccan to rediscover this great figure. Hundreds of thousands of people took part in his mass and respectable funeral which Morocco has not witnessed before. The people of Morocco gave a testimony of acknowledgment and gratitude to an inspirational person who has always been steadfast against injustice and oppression, and an appreciation of a person who embraced peaceful resistance of oppression and rejection half solutions. After his death, Skeikh Yassin became an inspirational figure among politicians, scholars, and preachers, inside and outside of Morocco, in addition to his legacy among the civil syndicates and students unions. Nevertheless, the Moroccan regime is still vehemently trying to suppress the legacy of the Imam during his life and after his death, although he was a man whose ultimate objective was to unite the Umma and enhance interaction among all the different actors regardless of their ideologies and affiliations. A New Leadership Contrary to some expectations, the Adl movement proved agile and well-organized, and wisely tackled the issue of appointing a successor for the Imam, may God be Merciful with him. The movement called for an extraordinary assembly of the Shura Council for three days, 7-9 Safar 1434 corresponding to 21-23 December 2012 in Sale. The meeting was called “The Adherence and Loyalty” and was held in an atmosphere of spiritual tranquility and brotherly feelings, reflecting the teachings of the Imam and his appeal, that was attended by all the senior figures in the movement. The assembly, which was held in such spiritual setting was accompanied by other spiritual sessions in all the regions to seek the guidance of God in that historical point. The assembly elected Mohammad Abbadi to succeed the Imam in leading the movement[xix]. The title of “ Founding Guide” was preserved for Sheikh Yassin, and the Secretary General was chosen for the new head of the movement. The assembly also elected Fathullah Arsalan as deputy Secretary General. The results of this extraordinary assembly of the Shura Council of the movement were an example of flexibility, harmony and organized institutional work, which reflects a deep understanding and solid moral formation by the leadership of the movement, represented by its Guiding Council and its Shura Council. This success is also a sign of the lingering influences and teachings instilled by Imam Yassin. The assembly in its closing statement asserted a number of firm positions and views, which had been long-awaited by observers who craved to know the path the movement is going to take after the demise of its founder. The statement stressed on the following points: The Adl movement shall adhere to the principles upon which the movement was founded, and it shall always endeavor to be an effective political and moral actor in this country. It shall always contribute to the stability of Morocco, believing that change is ultimately dependent on the individuals themselves, as God says in the Holy Quran “Indeed, Allah will not change the condition of a people until they change what is in themselves”. The movement shall adhere to the social approach as a means to improving the deteriorating circumstances in the country. It calls for meaningful cooperation among all the concerned actors in this country in order to establish a new social order for a new Morocco, where principles of freedom, dignity and justice prevail, where people freely choose their leadership and hold them accountable, in a democratic system that ensures separation of powers. The movement class all the concerned actors to engage in a serious and socially responsible dialogue in order to better benefit from the atmosphere of the Arab Spring, which is an important chance for the Umma, in order to develop a collective approach against oppression and corruption. The movement calls for building the country on the principles of freedom and justice for which the Moroccan people yearn. The movement declares its support and solidarity with the Syrian people in its great revolution and dreadful ordeal. It prays for God the Almighty to ease the suffering of the people of Syria and to help them realize their dreams for freedom and dignity in a unified Syria, free from all forms of oppression persecution. The movement condemns the Judaization of Jerusalem, and it supports the people of Gaza Strip. It calls for the Palestinians to move forward in the conciliation talks and to be united in order to achieve the just demands of the Palestinian people. [xx] Conclusion The Adl movement, despite oppression and exclusion, succeeded during the year 2012 in moving forward in its path of moral formation, Da’wa, and politics based on a peaceful civil struggle, in middle point between conditioned participation and violent opposition. The movement also endeavored to execute its da’wa and moral formation programs, and to create suitable circumstances to develop a common covenant with its Islamic and political partners in order to collectively achieve the welfare and freedom for the people of Morocco. [i] See the short biography of Sheikh Yassin on the official website of the movement [ii] Narrated by Abu Dawud and al-Baihaqi (Sahih) [iii] The most important books of Sheikh Yassin: - Islam and the Challenge of Secular Nationalism (1989) - Reflections on Islamic Jurisprudence and History (1990) - Guide to Believing Women (1996) - Spirituality [Al-Ihssān] Two parts (1998-1999) - Justice: Islamists and Governance (2000) - A Dialog with Honorable Democrats (1994) - On the Economy (1995), Shūra and Democracy (1996), Dialog of the Past and the Future (1997), Dialog with an Amazighit Friend (1997) - Islam and Modernity [iv] Makhzan refers to the governing institution in the Kingdom which centered on the King and the royal and military elite, and historically related to levying taxes from the people and oppressing them. [v] The authorities in Morocco tightened its crackdown against the Adl movement since 2006 after the movement launched an initiative called “open doors” which aims at promoting the programs of the movement in the society. 5733 people were arrested between 24/5/2006 and 9/5/2009, among them were 899 women and 23 kids according to a report issued by the legal committee in the movement for the years 2010 and published in its official website. http://www.aljamaa.net/ar/folder/191.shtml [vi] The official websites of the movement are: aaljamaa.com which is the general website that covers the activities of the movement. Yassin.net which is dedicated to Sheikh Yassin. Mouminate.net, which is the website of the women section in the movement [vii] Such as “AalJamaa” magazine which was banned in 1986, in addition to two newspapers “Alsubh” and “Alkhitab” which were banned in 1981. In 1992, “Resalet Alfotowwa” newspaper was confiscated, and “Al Adl wa Al Ihsan” newspaper was banned in 2000. The movement’s websites were also blocked every now and then. [viii]The Media office of the General Secretary of the political department of the Adl movement. [ix] The National Student Union in Morocco is a student organization founded in support of the student rights in Moroccan universities and colleges since the 1970’s. in early 1990’s, the students affiliated with the Adl movement were able to lead the union in the student union elections, and they played a major role in challenging the oppression of the governing elite. [x] The Research Center is run by the political department of the Adl movement, concerned with developing the political project of the movement, through observing public affairs, and developing the Islamic alternative model. The center consists of specialized offices each concerned with a specific field of research. [xi] The abstract of the political report of the regional council of the political department in the Adl movement in its 16th assembly held on Saturday and Sunday, 20-21 Shawwal 1433, corresponding to 8-9 September 2012 in Casablanca (internal document published in its website in Thursday, 13 September 2012) [xii] The regional council is similar to a shura council for the political department, which lays the overall strategies and elects its general secretary. The assembly is held annually, and is internally called “MUQADDAS”. [xiii] The political department is the political arm of the movement which is concerned with public affairs. Established in 1998, and run by a general secretary elected every three years, and currently headed by Abdulwahid Mutawakkil. [xiv] See full text in the appendixes (Appendix 2) [xv] See details in the following link: http://www.aljamaa.net/ar/folder/3603.shtml [xvi] See details in the following link: http://www.aljamaa.net/ar/folder/216.shtml [xvii] See details of the conference in the official website: www.yassineconferences.net [xviii] The reference here is to a letter titled “Islam or Flood” addressed by Iamam Yassin to King Hassan II in 1974, and a letter titled “To Whom It May Concern” addressed to the current King, Mohammad VI in 2000. [xix] See the biography of Mohammad Abbadi in appendix 2 [xx] See in the appendixes the full statement issued by the extraordinary assembly of the Shura Council. Appendix 3.

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