The future of the Turkish-Russian agreement in Idlib

Earlier in March, the Turkish army launched its Operation Spring Shield military operation in Syria. This came on the back of the latest military development in Idlib which saw the killing of a number of Turkish soldiers, and saw the Syrian opposition losing large areas it had previously controlled following


Operation Peace Spring between power and diplomacy

On October 9, Turkey launched its third military operation (Operation Peace Spring) in the east of the Euphrates River region in northern Syria, with the aim of establishing a safe zone on its southern borders, about 30-kilometer deep within the Syrian territories, and eliminating the Kurdish People’s Protection Units (YPG).


US Decision over Golan Heights: Context, Objectives, and Implications

On March 25, 2019, US President Donald Trump signed an executive order stipulating the US recognition of Israeli sovereignty over the occupied Golan Heights in the presence of Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, who described the decision as “historic” as no former US administration has taken such a step since